OUR PASTS – PART – II

  1. Surat in Gujarat on the west coast of India was one of the most important ports of the Indian ocean trade.

Dutch and English trading ships began using the port from the early 17th century.

Its importance declined in 18th century.

2. Mechanised production of cotton textiles made Britain the foremost industrial nation in 19th century.

And when its iron and steel industry started growing from the 1850s, Britain came to be known as the “workshop of the world”.

3. The charka came to represent India and it was put at the center of the tricolor flag on Indian National Congress adopted in 1931.

4. The first cotton mill in India was set up as a spinning mill in Bombay in 1854.

5. In 1873, Phule wrote a book named “Gulamgiri” meaning slavery.

6. On October 1, 1953, the new state of Andhra Pradesh came into being.

7. In 1950, the government setup a planning commission to help design and execute suitable policies for economic development.

8. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1925. He had come from South Africa where he had successfully fought the racist regime with a novel method of mass agitation, which he called Satyagraha.

9. The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.

10. In 1916, Gandhiji travelled to champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasanta to struggle against the oppresive plantation system. Then in 1917, he organised a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the kheda district of Gujarat.

11. In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

12. Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).

13. Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6th april.

14. On 13 April, the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh Movement took place.

15. The First world war had ended with the defeat of ottoman turkey.

16. To defend the kalifas temporal powers, a khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in march 1919.

17. In the book Hind Swaraj (1909) mahatma gandhi declared that british rule was established in india with the cooperation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation.

18. The non-cooperation khilafat movement began in January 1921.

19. In february 1922, mahatma gandhi decided to withdraw mom-cooperation movement.

20. When the simon commission in india in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon”.

21. In december 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal nehru, the lahore congress formalised the demand of “Purna Swaraj” or full independence for India. It was declared that 26th january 1930 would be celebrated as the Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence.

22. Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

23. On 31st January 1930, Gandhi send a letter to viceroy Irwin stating 11 demands.

24. The stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax.

25. Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers.

26. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi.

27. On 6th April he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.

That marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement. According to this movement, people were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, as they had done in 1921-22, but also to break colonial laws.

This movement was called off in 1931 and restored in 1932.

28. The image of Bharatamatha was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In 1870, he wrote Vande Mataram as a hymn to the motherland.

Later it was included in his novel Anandmath and widely sung during the swadeshi movement in Bengal.

29. During the swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.

It has 8 lotuses representing 8 provinces of british india, and a crescent moon, representing hindus and muslims.

30. By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the swaraj flag, it was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the gandhian ideal of self help.

31. One important feature of the US economy of the 1920s was mass production.

32. A well known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford.

33. The T model ford was the worlds first man produced car.

34. Rural India was thus seething with unrest when Mahatma Gandhi launched the civil disobedience movement at the height of the depression in 1931.

35. 2 crucial influences shaped post was reconstruction.

The first was the US emergence as the dominant economic, political and military power in the western world.

The second was the dominance of the soviet union.

36. The main aim of the post was international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.

Its framework was agreed upon ar the united nations monetary and financial conference held in july 1944 at bretton woods in new hampshire, USA.

37. The bretton woods conference established the international monetary fund IMF to deal with external surplus and deficit of its member nations.

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